In this chapter, we will discuss about the literature review of the research in which this study is divided into three main parts which are the causes of the students choose to surf the internet in the class, the effects of internet usage and also the ways to prevent the students for not surfing internet in class. Social networking, loneliness and addicted to playing online games are the causes of surfing the internet that can lead to some effects such as cannot concentrate on the lecture, poor exam grades, neglecting health and also spending less time with family and friends.
2.1 Causes the students choose to surf the internet in the class
Some of the causes why the students to surf the internet in the class are social networking, loneliness and also addicted to playing online games.

2.1.1 Social Networking

Click and Petit (2010) states that Facebook and Twitter are two of the most popular social networking sites. Over 400 million people in the world actively use Facebook (Stross, 2010), while Twitter claims over 106 million registered users (Miller, 2010). Some students will misuse the internet by surfing the pornography websites. Students are too young to differentiate good and bad websites so that they may get inappropriate knowledge from the websites. Their high curiosity causes them to surf for various websites. Another way of misuse of internet is students wasting time on online chatting. Students can chat with their friends for a long period of time because online chatting is not very costly. So, they may spend a whole day on chatting and they are unable to use their free time wisely. Students may misuse the internet by download files illegally too. As an example, students will surf several websites to search for the latest news or other information. As a result, they will download songs or videos illegally because they want to gain these files without spending lots of money.

Furthermore, the implications of bringing the websites into the classroom, comparing how students, teachers and administrators use and abuse these spaces especially MySpace and Facebook. “Social networking,” which is really in its initial stages. That means we must back off from pushing words at students and instead develop interactive environments that guide students into learning what we hope to have them learn (Maranto and M.Barton, 2010). MySpace, founded in 2003 by Tom Anderson and Chris DeWolfe, and Facebook, founded in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg, Dustin Moskovitz, and Chris Hughes,have become two of the most popular sites on the Web (Maranto and M.Barton, 2010).

2.1.2 Loneliness

Loneliness is one of the factor that caused the students misused the internet in the class. The authors are Morahan-Martin and Schumacher (2003) stated that 277 undergraduate Internet users that were used to assess differences between lonely and not-lonely individuals in patterns of Internet use. “ The Internet gave them a vehicle for both communication and recreation, often providing a safe and fun social life that was denied in real life” (Morahan-Martin, 2000).Those who accept the first hypothesis and view the Internet as causing loneliness argue that time online interrupts real life relationships. Support for this argument is found in the HomeNet study, which documented increases, is loneliness resulting from Internet use (Kraut et-al, 2000).
The authors attribute the increases in loneliness to decreases in family communication, social activities, happiness, and the number of individuals in one’s social network, which also associated with increased Internet use. They usually open the social networking like Facebook, Myspace and others to chatting with their friends. They feel lonely and empty; so that they use this chance to get know new friends in social networking. Lonely students are more likely to spend time online, use e-mail, and use the Internet for emotional support.
Lonely individuals may be drawn to some forms of interactive social activities online because of the possibilities of belonging, companionship, and communities that they provide. Participants were asked to indicate how often they had used the Internet for 17 specific reasons: communicating with family and friends, required course work, recreation or relaxation work, meeting new people talking to others who share common interest, sharing ideas or fantasies, wasting time, finding information, for own use, emotional support, gambling, net resources intended for adults only, games, Virtual Reality, and browsing. Moreover, the graduate student continues by observing different types of problems associated with spending large amounts of time logged into Facebook. For example, she or he notes that time spent logged onto Facebook may take time away from important academic responsibilities such as studying. Specifically, when the quality of technology use is not closely monitored or ensured, computer use may do more harm than good to student achievement in college. Students who reported academic problems were more likely to use the internet for real-time social activities such as IM and chat rooms.
2.1.3 Addicted to playing online games

Besides that, online games like Maple Story, Cabal, and Dota which are empowering the people especially student’s mind to bring disadvantages.This stated from Odaci (2010),though some online games can be played for free but it might cause addiction to the people. As they got addicted, they will keep on playing the games, hence they can’t focus in their class. Furthermore, the addiction of online games will prevent students from carry out other more benefited activities like exercising, studying or doing chores. They don’t even can concentrate on lessons in class as in their mind, they only think of strategies to pass to the next levels. Some students even tend to skip schools just to stay at home or internet cafes to play the online games. Other than that, they like to playing online games in the class because of they feel so boring and not interested to studying. One of the factors that they always playing online games in the class is just because they feel sleepy with the way their lecturer teach them.


2.2.1 Cannot concentrate on the lecture
Based on the study done by Yang and Tung (2004) to the students in Taiwanese High Schools to investigate the internet addicts among their students, it shows that the students with the internet addicts spent twice as many hours on the internet compared with the non addicts. This can be said as they are wasting their time on the unnecessary stuff as what we know, they will not surfing the internet for the things that related to their study but will visit the unused sites or playing games online and also enjoying the social networking sites. Based on Brenner(1996); Egger & Rauterberg (1996); Young (1996) which this study is referred to, it shows that the students will do anything as long as they can surf the internet and doing desired thing. This is including skipping the meals which can be said ad neglecting the health because of unbalanced way of life. Other than that, the students will tend to neglect their study, skipping the class and losing sleep in order to spend more time online. The above effects can lead to losing sleep as when they are unaware with the time spent for surfing internet, they will use their sleeping time for online which can cause them to be sleepy in the class on the next day. When they are using the internet all the time, their financial costs will be increased as they will have to pay for the electric bill and also the internet facility. However, this effect is seems not much for the students but fir their parents. The parents will face another problem in order to pay maybe an excessive increase of amount as they have much more things to support.

2.2.2 Poor exams grades

Internet addiction may result when some physiological factor causes an individual to be independence on new online content (Davis, 2001). Obsessive thoughts then follow about the online material, and feelings develop where the internet is perceived as a friend instead of technology or a medium for getting information (Yellowless & Marks, 2007). This is because they are obsessed with the information from the internet and assuming that all the information that they get from the internet are always true until at a stage, no one can argue the information that they get from the internet. For the students who use the internet excessively, they will face some problems such as over sleep as they fell tired spending much time in front of the computer screen and leading to least on study as much time spent on the internet and also sleep (Anderson, 2001). Students that involved obsessively with the internet will skip the classes or miss the examinations and lead to the failure on their study and their academic achievement will drop day by day (Chou, 2001; Tsai & Lin, 2003).

2.2.3 Neglecting Health.

Based on Brenner (1996), Egger & Rauterberg (1996), they states that the students will do anything as long as they can surf the internet and doing desired things (Young, 1996). This is including skipping meals in which we can said as neglecting health because of unbalanced way of life. Other than that, the students will tend to neglect their sleeping time in order to spend more time online. This is because when they are unaware with the time spent for surfing internet, they will use their sleeping time for online which can cause them to be sleepy the next day.

2.2.4 Spending less time with family and friends.

The study found that the excessive usage will spend less time with their family and friends and this will lead to low self esteem and they will also become less confident when they have to communicate with the other people. Valuable time spent with family and friends is reduced and is displaced by surfing internet. This effect can lead to bigger effect such as the person who has addicted to the internet is having smaller social circles because they communicate with people face-to-face less which later can bring on a higher level of loneliness(Nie, Hillguys & Erbring, 2002). This is so because they lack of confidence when they have to face the public which can cause them to have fewer friends. Meanwhile, findings of both Lin & Tsai (2002) and Chou & Hsiao (2000) states that the internet used by the Taiwanese users is to enhance and maintain interpersonal relationship and intimacy as they feel that they are closer with their friends as they can talk about anything when they are chatting rather than talking face-to-face.

Making practical the connection between learning research and classroom practice need not be as difficult as it may seem. One exception, Fried (2005) found no different between laptop and non-laptop section in overall class grades. Without burdening practitioners too heavily with the psychological language inherent in much of the learning research, we should be able to develop a basic story line about learning that is relatively easy to act upon. Drawing primarily from cognitive learning theory, this section suggests some of the main elements to consider if we really want students engaged in their own learning. It is important to ground proposed instructional strategies with theory and empirical evidence on such key matters as how students represent ideas in memory.

The representations are elaborated and perfected over time. It is also important to understand how students learn to monitor and control their own learning. Good lecture techniques can facilitate students’ processing efforts, and good teachers are usually aware of the need to encourage and support effective memory strategies. Studies of online communities show that members exhibit behaviors that traditionally identify the presence of community offline. Online participants in email networks, newsgroups, chat rooms and MUD environments support common goals and a strong commitment to the purpose and tone of their community (Baym, 1995; Curtis, 1997; Donath 1999; King, Grinter & Pickering, 1997; Reid, 1995; Rheingold, 1993). ). Human attention and capacity to process information is selective and limited (Kahneman, 1973; Posner, 1982). Too many sources of information can create cognitive overload, and new information coming in can cause attention shifts and distraction (for general overview of attention theories, see (Roda & Thomas, 2006).


As conclusion, there are several causes why students surfing internet in class. Social networking, loneliness and addicted playing online games are the main causes why students surfing internet in class. There are a lot of effects of surfing internet in class which are cannot concentrate on the lecture, get poor exams grades, neglecting health and spending less time with family and friends. The way to prevent students not surfing internet in class is we should be able to develop a basic story line about learning that is relatively easy to act upon.